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Mining in Peru

Mining in Peru

Industry Highlights


  • Mining exports are crucial for Peru accounting for ~60% of the country's total exports (2010)
  • Investment in Peru's mining and energy sectors totalled USD$4.9 B (2009)
  • Fast-growing mining sector; investments of over USD$18 B in last 15 years
  • BHP Billiton, Rio Tinto, Vale and Barrick Gold have investments in Peru
  • Mining generates more than 128,000 direct and 400,000 indirect jobs
  • Mining Law is based on international standards
  • Safe and mining friendly jurisdiction with easy permitting

Government Protection

Agreements have been signed by the government of Peru with affiliates of the World Bank and with the Overseas Private Investment Corporation to insure foreign investors against such non-commercial risks as expropriation and abrogation of contracts. Peru has signed the Agreement for the Constitution of the Multinational Investment Guarantee Agency, a World Bank agency, and The Agreement for Investment Insurance with the United States Overseas Private Investment Corporation ("OPIC") and the World Bank Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes.

Mining Legislation

The main legislation governing the mining sector is the General Mining Law of Peru (1991). Investment promotion laws, the Peruvian tax regime and environmental framework are other components of the Peruvian mining landscape. Concessions are granted for exploration, exploitation, beneficiation, auxiliary services and transportation.

A mining concession grants its holder the right to explore and exploit minerals within its area. Key characteristics include:

  • Concessions are exclusive, freely transferable and mortgageable
  • Location is based on a UTM grid system of minimum 100ha to 1000ha
  • Granted on a first-come, first served basis
  • Indefinite term but with restrictions and an objective based criteria
  • Single annual fee payable; fee structure based on scale of operations and duration of ownership
  • Access to the property must be negotiated with surface land owners